Notes on Continuous Deployment

Scenario: A customer has a problem with your software. His questions makes you think and you get an idea for a feature improvement. A good one! Act on it.

  • Plan it
  • Code it
  • Test it
  • Commit it
  • Deploy it

Nothing out of the ordinary, it seems. The seemingly new thing about continuous deployment is that we remove all the waiting in between each of these steps. That is, we don’t batch changes before to testing them. You test immediately what you just coded. You commit it. Not to a branch due for merging in a week. No, directly to trunk. And you even deploy it at once to production. Done. Clear your mind of it, enjoy, relax, spend some time doing something proactive.

Develop, test, commit, deploy. One feature, bug-fix or improvement at a time. That is the mantra for continuous deployment.

Some developers, and perhaps particularly managers, will find the idea crazy at first. Release immediately? Omigod. But frequently this sensation of safety in postponing something, is not rooted in any real benefits, and there seems to be no rational answer to the question of: why wait? Did your code ever get better during the night? Some will even argue that big feature releases is a marketing invention, invented to squeeze more money out of customers frustrated with the bugs in the current version. This practice of batching changes in releases in turn got embraced by the industry as the professional way of conducting business. I could easily add this to my list of major problems with the software industry.

Wouldn’t it be nice to deliver a bug-fix the same day it was reported? The same hour, even? It might just be possible if you are continuously deploying product improvements like this, kaizen-style.

Where does this idea come from?

The idea of continuous deployment comes from the lean school of thought. In the mindset of lean kanban pull systems — where you are constantly looking to remove waste and minimize your batch-sizes — grouping a lot of big software changes together in big batches and big releases makes no sense.

Even Flickr is doing continuous deployment these days.

The whole idea is to respond to customer “pull”. The customer needs something now. The clock starts ticking. Is the feature more useful if you wait a bit before you start coding it? No. Then start now. Is the feature better if you wait with testing after coding it? No. Then test now. Wait until tomorrow to integrate into version system? Is that better? No. Then integrate. Does thing get better if we wait to deploy that new feature? No. Then deploy it. Stop your clock. The shorter the time, the better for the customer. And better for quality, it seems. And the better for you, the coder. Unreleased code is stressful. Released, working code, is stress free. The code works. It’s proven.

After a few iterations, our fear level was actually lower than how we used to feel after a staged release. Because we were committing less code per release, we could correlate issues to a release with certainty. (From Case Study: Continuous deployment makes releases non-events)

Bugs that are not discoverable in testing are easier to find and fix if you released only one feature, than if you batched a months worth of changes together in one big bang release. Or so the lean school of thought states. I agree. You would have written the code hours ago, and probably say ‘a-ha!’ the second you hear about it. 20 minutes later, a bug-fix is released. Why wait?

A few resources on lean from Amazon:

What does it take?

Not surprisingly, continuous deployment requires a high level of team discipline. No goofing off and no more fixing everything mañana in testing. Practices such as 5 Why root cause analysis, extensive testing and automation will be required. But it will all lead you to better quality and higher iteration speed. Speed and quality, it is all related.

Eric Ries writes on O’Reilly Radar about “Continuous Deployment in 5 easy steps“. Eric Ries has gotten a lot of traction with his Lean Startup movement lately. And you can follow his thoughts and reports on personal experience on continuous deployment on his blog http://www.startuplessonslearned.com/

Look ahead

Will we pursue this issue of continuous deployment any further? In the name of delivering a high quality experience to our customers and users now, when they still need it: yes we will.

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